Wednesday, January 27, 2016

KERINCI: " Dry & Wet" higest Volcano Indonesia

ALTITUDE: 3805 m asl
CLASSIFICATION: A-Type Active Volcano
ERUPTION TYPE: Vulcanian (Weak One)
BASE: Kersi Tuo, Kayu Aro, regency Kerinci, province Jambi.

Kerinci is ones of favorite volcano climbing destination in Indonesia by most adventure travelers, specially
climbing tourists. Administratively, it located at two provinces of Indonesia : Regency Kerinci, Province Jambi, and Regency Solok, Province West Sumatera.Volcano Kerinci is strato, it classified as A - type active volcano according to Indonesian volcano classification.This is highest active volcano in Indonesia by altitude 3805 m asl.Common climbing base : Kersi Tuo, Kayu Aro, Kerinci, Jambi. The closest town access : Sungai Penuh and Solok.


At Kerinci, there was legend of Dipati Parbo ( year 1703 ),a local hero of Kerinci in colonial era and giving name of this volcano as Kerinci. Literally, there are some versions about meaning of word Kerinci, one of them: word Kerinci originally rooted from Kerin and cair, Kerin mean dry while cair mean liquit / wet. So it name of Kerinci reflects two situations in history : Dry and wet. Other names of this volcano: Peak of Indrapura, Gunung Gadang, and Berapi Kurinci, also Korinci.It is worthy to note that Kerinci is also actually name of local ethnic group.

ERUPTIONS IN HISTORY:Vulcanian Type (Weak One)

First recorded eruption in historical time was on year 1838 that was occurred at central crater of Kerinci. Past eruptions of Kerinci recorded several Pheriatic eruption, as well as ash eruption as dominant ones. Eruptions were explosive, today known typically as Vulcanian eruption type ( weak vulcanian ones ). Pheriatic eruptions were recorded at : 1878, 1887, 1908, and 1938 ( ref to vsi ) while ash eruptions were recorded at : 1952, 1960, 1963, 1964, 1967, 1970?, 1999 and 2002 ( ref to vsi ).

Since Sept 24, 2007 time 04:40 the alert level of Kerinci increased to level II due to noted ash eruption,
high of 700 - 800 from crater rim, turn to east, by interval 5 minutes. On March 24,2008 time between 11:40 - 12:25 occurred eruption (white thick blackly color) up in to maximum 500 from summit, then decrease in to maximum +- 300 m high from summit on 16:30.On January ( last update checking out 7,2016 ) the alert level still on Level II ( ref to vsi ). Activity of Volcano Kerinci is intensive observed by the authority at OBSERVATION POS: Vilage Kersik Tuo, district Kayu Aro, regency Kerinci , Province Jambi, Sumatra Island.


Summit of Kerinci is actually the highest point of it's crater ridge of gigantic cone. It towering as high as 3805 m asl, and considered as highest active volcano in Indonesia.On summit zone, none vegetation capable to adapt,so anywhere is volcanic rock.When sulphure gas at active crater was highly accumulated, the summit zone zone then covered by sulphure fume, made atmosphere of summit was white any where by sulphure fume as well as cause the vent of crater to be invisible.When it accumulated low, panoramic view surrounding is really great included view of caldera lake of seven mountain ( locally called Gunung Tujuh ) and spectacular highest volcanic landscape.


Below summit is rather flat area of volcanic altitude of 3684 m asl, it is locally called Tugu Yudha. This area is considered as best view point for summit cone view of volcano Kerinci. When it's sulphure gas was highly accumulated, the sulphure fume is visible spewed out crossing up the carter ridge.The area was dominated by volcanic rock, mostly loose volcanic rock.

Further lower to 3351 m is bushline of volcano Kerinci, this area is popularly called shelter III by volcano climbers.This is the border between two totally different ecosystem: sub - alpine ecosystem and volcanic zone of volcano Kerinci.This area provide great view of towering volcanic wall,below mountain tropical forest as well as caldera lake in the distance.Some climbers normally use this area as overnight camp prior to summit push on next day early dark morning to arrive on summit in the morning, hopping a good weather up there.Below shelter III is shelter II, the area is vegetated area, so it well protected from strong wind and therefore popular for overnight by most climbers for volcano Kerinci.

Below shelter II is more typically sub-alpin vegetation, leads down through mountain forest to shelter I. The area is rather typically mountain rain forest ecosystem, dominated by Dipterocarpaceae, Lauraceae, and Myrtaceae. Highly fresh air, also humid, and some sections of hiking path are muddy specially after rainfall.

Further to lower area are some flat space popularly known as hiking breaking point : Pos 3, Pos 2, then Pos 1, lead down to entrance gate locally called Pintu Rimbo, some climbers also call it Gerbang. The area is dominated by local farmland and tea plantation. Kersi Tuo base 1500 m asl is popular for it's tea plantation , and best tea product.


As a volcano, summit and volcanic area 3805 - 3350 of Kerinci is interesting point for volcano climbers, while below 3350 is good hiking trail for mountain forest trekking seekers.The area also suit for bird watching, and outdoor photography for woodland and volcanic landscape photography. Kersi Tuo and Kayu Aro are worthy spot fro teawalking.Caldera lake Mountain Tujuh ( approx half hour drive from base volcano Kerinci ) is popular hiking destination by most visitors at Kerinci.The lake also offers canoeing to observe flora - fauna of this highest volcanic caldera lake.

Around Kerinci, some waterfalls and lakes have been discovered and attract many travelers, as well as hotspring.The area is high way access, connected by main road,while hotels and restaurant or food install, even private transports service are all easily found at regency town of Kerinci, Jambi. Due to high influences of Padangnese culture, cuisine at Kerinci region is dominated by Padang food, even easily found local food stall locally called Rumah Makan Padang. 

Culturally, and historically, Kerinci region is important area for it's old architecture style such old mosque and old style of local house architecture. The area also recently known as important for it's megalithic archaeological sites, here discovered pra historical life indicating by Dolment, Menhir and some other megalithic remains separating around region of Kerinci.Due to Kerinci was previously less influenced, even perhaps most region were free from expansion of western colonialists and other religion such Hinduism and Budism,Kerinci is more pure culturally.

However, Kerinci region today has been inhabited by many different ethic group such Padang ethnic group ,even Java ethnic group. It worthy to know too that Kerinci is also name of one of Indonesian ethnic groups locally called Suku Kerinci, considered original ethnic group for Kerinci region, possessing their own ethnic language ,tradition, local arts, ancient villages, local architecture style. So that culture diversity at Kerinci is sufficiently high too until now day.


1.Images Up - Down:

> Cloudy Volcano Kerinci as seen from Kersi Tuo
> Climbing Shelter III
> Mark of Summit "Puncak Kerinci" mean Summit Kerinci.There were two summit marks:left side white color,broken already as seen since August 2012, and mark on right side blue color as seen.
> Volcano Kerinci as seen from base Kersi Tuo and some foreign climbers in the morning.

2.Images By : Ambo Upe Olenk + Francisco Eka

3.Article By : Ambo Upe Olenk