Wednesday, December 9, 2015

MERAPI:Indonesian Most Active Volcano

VOLCANO NAME: Merapi
 LOCATION: Yogyakarta & Central Java Provinces,Indonesia
VOLCANO TYPE: Strato
CLASSIFICATION: A-Type Active Volcano
HISTORICAL ERUPTION: First Recorded 1006


Climbing Merapi volcano is most favorite volcano climbing excursion for most adventure travelers visiting Yogyakarta and Central Java provinces,Indonesia. The actual climb for Merapi it self take approx 7 hours hike up and hike down,a considered physically challenging climb for 1 day climbing trip. Physically easier for 2 days climbing trip included 1 night camp on volcano.Administratively,Merapi located at two provinces of Indonesia,they are: Yogyakarta and Central Java provinces.Literally, Merapi consisted of words " Meru " and "Api " : Meru means mountain and Api means Fire. There fore,Merapi is also used to be called as " mountain of fire ".


As most active volcano of Indonesia, even one of the world's most active volcano, Merapi is intensively monitored.Some monitoring pos and equipment have been established by Indonesia government on some volcanic area of Merapi volcano to provides safety warning for citizen and visitors as indicated by early warning system locally called " status ". it's activities are evaluated weekly by relevant authorized officer.

First recorded eruption in historical time was on 1006,this eruption was normal eruption occurred at new central crater ( Neuman van Padang 1951, p.123 ). As most active volcano in Indonesia,previously Merapi volcano always do self destruction and change it self by erupting.The explosive eruption stage is frequently accompanied by pyroclastic flows that considered so far as most danger of Merapi volcanic hazard.The effusive eruptions were characterized by the occurrence of lava flows, the development of lava dome and the production of the "nuee ardente d'avalanche" that made the eruption type of this most active volcano so spesific as it called Merapi Type.

Recent eruption (eruption Oct,2010) was more explosive eruption (VEI 4) that caused pyroclastic up approx 7 km vertically and reached area as far as 17 km, changed it's previous Eruption Type "Merapi Type" eruption in to new type one called "Plinian"(BPPTKG Yogyakarta), also destructed it's summit zone then formed new sensational view crater 423 x 374 in size and 140 m in depth.Today summit Merapi is actually the highest point of it's crater's rim, it's high approx 2930 m, lower 38 m prior to huge eruption Oct 2010.

The summit cone is visible from Merapi old crater called Pasar Bubrah approx altitude 2680 m, and accessible from crater rim previously called Puncak Bayangan ( literally means Summit Shadow ) on it's right side.Summit cone access is slippery, and terrific steep crater rim.Therefore, climbers normally finalizes their hike until Puncak Bayangan or go further along left side of the Puncak Bayangan for more view of new crater of Merapi.The crater rim provides narrow space for climbers to stand that need extra careful.There is no need to stay long on crater rim, descending as crater has been observed or picture has been taken is important for Merapi climbing trip.

Lower northern below crater rim is a warm volcanic area where hikers normally  pass several small vents blowing out volcanic steam that make ground surface of the volcano warmer. Around this area are towering boulder.Rather down below are more loose gravelly rock on the ground surface that easily slide down when they were hit by foot steps, then volcanic sand leading down to old crater area of Merapi locally called Pasar Bubrah. This vast rocky area was actually remain of past older volcanic activity during third period of Merapi between 8000 up to 2000 years ago

Further lower northern area is gravelly volcanic ridge plus standing rocky knoll, a rest previous lava flow of past volcanic activity of Young Merapi during third period of Merapi volcano.Another near by rocky hill formed on same period is also visible on esat site of gravelly ridge.Next are some little bushy ridge,a typically sub alpin ecosystem.Then lower mountain forest of Merapi and highfarmland ecosystem.The forest ply important role as watercatchment for lower area as well cultivation by local farmers in the area.It is also play role as protection area for habitat of some spesific Merapi highland flora - fauna included some Java Eagle, small black color monkey and birds.


Additional Image Info:
"Merapi Volcano: The Nothern Wall"
Overview & Image By Ambo Upe Olenk


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