Wednesday, October 1, 2014


Forest-Jungle of Indonesia can be seen based on various certain elements such elevation factor, climate distinction, and even soil character of the land.Based on it's elevation, Indonesia has Mountain Forest.Based on it's climate, Indonesia has the wellknown rain tropical forest, and based on soil character, Indonesia has swamp forest.

Elevation Based: The Mountain Forest

As proposed by Van Steenis (1950), Mountain Forest on this archipelogo devided in to three : Low tropical mountain forest on elevation 1200-1500 m from sea level.And High tropical mountain forest on elevation 1500-3000 m from sea level. Last...Subalpine Tropical Forest on elevation 3000-3350 m from sea level - tree border.

The most important vegetation type is the mixed lowland and mountain tropical rain forest occurring below 1,500 m. It is characterized by a large number of species, including high-canopied and buttressed trees and woody, thick-stemmed lianas (climbing plants). Epiphytes (plants that derive nourishment from the air and usually live on another plant) such as orchids and ferns, saprophytes (plants that live on dead or decaying matter), and parasites are well developed. Above 1,500 m this forest gives way to temperate upland forest dominated by oak, laurel, tea, and magnolia species.

Partly of western side of the arc were found groups of plant species of Leptospermum, Tristania, dan Phyllocladus growing on Mountain forest ecosystem on elevation over 3.300 m above sea level.While partly of eastern side, spesially Irian Jaya,grow plant species of plants Conifer locally named pohon berdaun jarum, genus Dacrydium, Libecedrus, Phyllocladus, and Podocarpus,as well as  species of plants Eugenia spp. dan Calophyllum.

Climate Based: From Mangrove to Tropical Rain Forest

Based on differentiation of it's climate, Indonesia possesing different type of forest named Mangrove Forest,Tropical Rain Forest,and Muson Forset. The mangrove forest is characterized by the formation of stilt- or prop-rooted trees, which grow only in salty or brackish water along muddy shores.While,Tropical
Rain Forest partly cover region of Island Sumatra, Kalimantan,Sulawesi,North Maluku, and Papua.

Last...the Muson Forest, grows in some ares of Central Java,Yogyakarta, East Java, Bali, Nusa Tengara (West and East), partly Maluku,and pratly south coastal area of Irian Jaya. Type of plans growing on theses regions included Tectona grandis (locally called Jati), Actinophora fragrans(Locally called walikukun ), Eucalyptus alba(ekaliptus), Santalum album (Locally named cendana ), and Melaleuca leucadendron (locally called  kayuputih ).

Soil Character Based: Coast To Swamp Forest

Based on it's soil character, type of forest of Indonesia covers Coast Forest, Mangrove forest, and Swamp forest.Coast forest found along dry coastal area, sandy coastal area and steep / not flat such south coast of Java.Species of plants for this area included Terminalia catappa( Ketapang), Hibiscus tiliaceus (Waru), Casuarina equisetifolia(Cemara Laut), and Pandanus tectorius(pandan).

While Mangrove forest of Indonesia covers wide region of Indonesia : along north coast of Java, east coast Sumatera, along coast Kalimantan, south coast Papua. It's plants mainly genus Avicennia, Sonneratia, last Rhizopheria.Last...Swamp forest,it found almost all of the island mainly Sumatera, Kalimantan, Papua. Species of swamp plant included Palaquium leiocarpum(Nyato), Koompassia spp (Kempas), and Gonystylus spp (Ramin).

Period: Year 2014